Science and Tech
French glaciologist Claude Lorius, who pioneered the fight against climate crisis, dies at 91
French glaciologist Claude Lorius, who played an important role in proving that human activities cause global warming, has died at the age of 91. It was announced that Lorius died on Tuesday in the Burgundy region of France.
One of the pioneers of glaciology, Lorius visited Greenland and Antarctica 22 times in his lifetime.
During his voyage of exploration in Antarctica in 1965, while looking at ice cubes in his drink, he discovered how human activities have warmed the Earth.
While continuing his education at the University of Besançon in France, Lorius dreamed of becoming a football player like his brother.
Until one day, at the age of 23, she saw an advertisement on the university campus saying “We are looking for young researchers to participate in scientific excursions organized for the International Geophysical Year”.
With this call that changed his life, Lorius, who stepped into glacier science, which was still a narrow field that day, said in an interview 60 years later, “All I could think of was the possibility of adventure.” he would say.
On his first Antarctic voyage in 1955, he saw temperatures drop to -40 degrees Celsius.
Despite this, Lorius and two others lived on the icy continent for two years, surviving with limited stock and a malfunctioning radio.
On every polar expedition to the continent, he has been more fascinated by the mysteries of Antarctica.
Lorius made a discovery in 1965 by collecting ice samples from the continent and dropping them into a whiskey glass.
Half a century later, he described that day as follows:
“After drilling deep in the glacier one evening, we returned to our trailer and put the ice cubes we had brought from the deep into the whiskey we were drinking.
“When I saw the air bubbles in our glasses, I had the idea that these were samples of atmosphere trapped in ice.”
Realizing the scientific potential of analyzing trapped air in the glacier, Loruis decided to examine the ice cores. Ice cores are samples that have been extracted from the ice and serve as frozen time capsules.
As Lorius pierced through the ice, he moved from the present to the past and reached the “ices of the first Ice Age”.
His research on air bubbles trapped in ice was published in 1987.
His research showed that the rate of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which varied slightly from period to period, increased abruptly after the Industrial Revolution and increased temperatures.
Lorius’ internationally acclaimed and groundbreaking work in glacial science paved the way for scientists to examine the 160,000-year-old glacial record.
The French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) said the study “leads no doubt” that global warming is caused by human activities.
After this important discovery, Loruis became one of the pioneers in the field of climate change and in 1988 became the first expert of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
He received the CNRS gold medal in 2002 along with his colleague Jean Jouzel.
He became the only French scientist to receive the Blue Planet Award, known as the “Nobel Prize for Ecology”.
Science and Tech
Cyber attack warning from Microsoft
Microsoft has warned that Chinese state-backed hackers are targeting critical US cyber infrastructures for intelligence gathering across many industries.
US software giant Microsoft warned that the Chinese cyber actor codenamed “Volt Typhoon” revealed “post-compromat credential access” and “network system discovery-oriented, covert and targeted malicious activities” against critical infrastructure organizations in the USA. .
“Microsoft assesses with moderate confidence that the Volt Typhoon action is aimed at developing capabilities that could disrupt the critical communications infrastructure between the United States and the Asian region during future crises,” the company said in its warning.
While Microsoft informed that the actor in question has been active since mid-2021, it advised customers affected by a possible unauthorized access to close their accessed accounts and change their passwords.
On the other hand, in the news of the American New York Times, citing anonymous sources, it was claimed that the US intelligence was aware of the fact that the aforementioned cyber actor had access to US networks when the Chinese balloon entered US airspace in February.
In the news, it was claimed that Volt Typhoon’s activity in February was focused on the communication infrastructure between the USA and the island of Guam.
The island of Guam is the most critical point in the US strategy to contain China and is home to the largest US military base in the region.
Following Microsoft’s warning, the US has issued a joint Cybersecurity Alert with the cybersecurity authorities of the four countries to draw attention to a set of actions associated with the Chinese state-backed cyber actor.
Joint alert is the United States’ Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and NSA, as well as Australian Signals Agency Australian Cybersecurity Center (ACSC), Canadian Communications Security Authority Cybersecurity Center (CCCS), New The National Cyber Security Center of Zealand (NCSC-NZ) and the UK’s National Center for Cyber Security (NCSC-UK) also participated.
In the warning published, it was reported that the relevant institutions believed that the actor identified by Microsoft could apply the same techniques to other countries and other sectors.
Stating that one of Volt Typhoon’s main tactics is to hide using built-in network management tools, the institutions included the information, “Some of the built-in tools used by this actor are wmic, ntdsutil, netsh and PowerShell.”
Science and Tech
Creator of ChatGPT: My biggest fear is the possibility of harming the world
“My biggest fear is that we, as the tech industry, may cause significant damage to the world,” said Samuel Harris Altman, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of OpenAi, which developed ChatGPT.
Speaking at the US Senate Judiciary subcommittee, OpenAi’s Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Samuel Harris Altman, said: “My biggest fear is that we, as the technology industry, may cause significant damage to the world. I think it could be different,” he said.
“As with all technological revolutions, I expect a significant impact on employment, but it’s very difficult to predict exactly what that impact looks like,” said Altman, warning the Senate that ChatGPT technology “could go to a very bad place”.
According to the newspaper Oxygen, Samuel Harris Altman, speaking about the growing popularity of ChatGPT and the positive and negative possibilities of artificial intelligence, acknowledged that the government should step in to ensure these changes are managed.
In the 3-hour meeting, Altman advised the US Senators to establish an independent mechanism to conduct licensing audits of artificial intelligence technologies, and stated that this would allow a set of security standards, including the assessment of their dangerous capabilities, to be established.
This way, Altman said, we can ensure that the models “can’t self-replicate and move on their own.”
Speaking to the committee meeting, some senators also warned about corporate cooperation in the artificial intelligence market, pointing to the problems that will be faced if a small number of technology companies dominate this sector.
Science and Tech
Warnings about artificial intelligence from Geoffrey Hinton, scientist who left Google
Scientist Geoffrey Hinton, one of the pioneers in the field of artificial intelligence, made statements that warned against progress in this field.
Hinton, 75, recently resigned from his position at Google.
“Now I can talk about what the dangers are,” Hinton said in an interview with the BBC, adding that some of these dangers are “very frightening.”
The scientist, who has British and Canadian citizenship, says that chatbots, known as chatbots, may soon exceed the information capacity of the human brain.
Hinton played a role in reaching the present point of artificial intelligence with his research on deep learning and artificial neural networks.
Advanced systems like ChatGPT are at the center of warnings about the future as well as the possibilities they provide.
Hinton also draws attention to this point:
“Right now, GPT-4 can far outshine a human in the amount of general knowledge it holds. In terms of reasoning, they are not equally good, but they can make simple reasoning.
Considering the rate of progress, we know that these systems will become more effective very quickly. And that should worry us. At the moment, as far as I know, they are not smarter than us. But they may soon be smarter.”
In the article he wrote for the New York Times, Hinton emphasizes that “bad people” can do “bad things” with artificial intelligence.
Answering the BBC’s question about this point, Hinton replies, “This is one of those nightmare scenarios”:
“Suppose one of the villains, Putin, allows robots to create their own sub-purposes. This may eventually lead to sub-objectives such as ‘I need to get more power’.
“I came to the conclusion that the type of intelligence we create is very different from what we have.
“We are a biological system, but these are digital systems. The biggest difference with digital systems is that you can make multiple copies of the same size.
“All these copies can learn different things but instantly share their knowledge with each other. So it’s like you have 10 thousand people and one of them learns something and the others have this information at the same time. That’s why these chatbots have more information than any human.
Regarding his departure from Google, Geoffrey Hinton said, “I wanted to say good things about them. “If I had said these things while I was working there, they wouldn’t have been effective enough,” he said.
Science and Tech
New planet twice the size of Earth discovered
Scientists announced the discovery of a new planet called TOI-733b, which is stated to be about twice the size of Earth.
Scientists have discovered a new planet about twice the size of Earth and covered with oceans.
It is stated that this planet, called TOI-733b, is only one of more than 5 thousand exoplanets that have been known after the first discovery in the 1990s.
TOI-733b was found 245 light-years away by NASA’s telescope TESS. It has been noted that the relative similarities of the planet orbiting a star slightly smaller than the sun in a period of only 4.9 days could play a key role in understanding the formation of planets in the universe.
THE INTERESTING SIDE OF THE PLANET ‘SIZE’
It was stated that the particularly interesting aspect of TOI-733b for researchers is its size.
Density measurements on the planet from a distance show that it has either lost the atmosphere it once had or is a planet that is completely covered with water.
However, several data points indicate that TOI-733b’s atmosphere is slowly depleting, which may be due to its proximity to its star’s heat.
Other theories suggest that TOI-733b lost its hydrogen and helium and instead retained an atmosphere filled with water vapor or regenerated a secondary atmosphere made up of heavier elements.
“ONE KEY PIECE”
The research on the planet by Astronomy & Astrophysics noted how exciting and “interesting” the discovery of the planet is in the field of astronomy, saying it has the potential to be “a small but key piece to solving the big puzzles in exoplanet science”.
“With the promise of increasingly in-depth theoretical analysis and high-precision follow-up by current and future facilities, we appear to be on our way to answering important questions about planet formation and evolution,” the research said.
Science and Tech
Research: Eating french fries can cause depression
New research; found that fried foods are not only beneficial for physical health, but also cause mental disorders such as depression.
According to a study published in the scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, data from more than 140,000 people who consumed fried food for 11 years revealed a link between fried food consumption and anxiety disorder and depression.
The data obtained from the UK Biobank, which contains the health data of 500 thousand people in the United Kingdom, was analyzed by a group of scientists in Hangzhou, China.
Studies have shown that eating french fries increases the risk of anxiety disorder by 12 percent and the risk of depression by 7 percent.
The researchers put forward the thesis that the results obtained may be related to a chemical called acrylamide that occurs during the frying process.
However, the researchers stressed that the results from the study are preliminary, and there is no need to give advice to stop eating french fries.
“There is no need to panic about the ill effects of fried food,” Yu Zhang, co-author of the article, told CNN.
Science and Tech
Microsoft to pay US fine for sanctions violations
It was reported that the US technology company Microsoft will settle in the investigation carried out on the grounds that it violated the US export controls and sanctions, and will pay a total fine of $ 3.3 million.
In a statement made by the US Department of Commerce, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) of the Department of Commerce and the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) of the US Department of the Treasury gave a total of $ 3.3 million to Microsoft for violations of US export controls and sanctions laws. sentence was reported.
In the statement, which stated that Microsoft voluntarily disclosed the alleged violations to both BIS and OFAC, it was noted that the company cooperated in the joint investigation carried out by BIS’s Export Enforcement Office and OFAC.
In the statement, Microsoft reportedly took corrective measures after discovering the ongoing situation that preceded export controls and sanctions in connection with Russia’s war in Ukraine.
In the statement, it was stated that BIS imposed an administrative fine of 624 thousand 13 dollars on Microsoft, while OFAC imposed a fine of 2 million 980 thousand 266 dollars for 1,339 violations of the sanctions regulations covering Ukraine/Russia, Cuba, Iran and Syria.
In the statement, it was stated that Microsoft was given a loan of $ 276 thousand 382 by the BIS, subject to meeting its requirements under the settlement agreement with OFAC, and the total penalty amount was $ 3 million 327 thousand 897.
The U.S. Treasury Department said in a statement that most breaches between 2012 and 2019 were related to sanctioned Russian entities or individuals in the Crimea region, as a result of Microsoft’s failure to identify and block the use of its products by sanctioned parties.
Science and Tech
Feature that will delight Microsoft Teams users
A new feature has been introduced for Microsoft Teams. Thanks to this feature, the background of your conversations will now look more realistic.
Microsoft is adding a new green screen feature for Teams. This new feature, which will make the background appear more realistic in video calls, will also increase the virtual background experience.
NEW FEATURE WILL SEPARATE THE USER PROPERLY FROM THE FUND
The new feature was announced in a blog post. There are some nuances to use this feature in Microsoft Teams. The wall or wallpaper in the background should be unstained and should be preferred plain without anything like a poster or frame on it. Users need to apply the background effect to enable the green screen effect and choose the background color carefully for the effect to be of better quality.
On the other hand, the effect works much better if you already have a green screen. But of course this is not a requirement.
The feature can be used on Windows devices and versions with Intel processors on macOS. So if you’re using a Mac with an M1 or M2 processor, you can’t use this feature right now.
The green screen feature, which does not currently support the together mode, is open to everyone. To enable it, you need to apply a background effect in your Teams meeting. You can choose the color of the wall behind you or green if you have a custom green screen.
Science and Tech
Russian satellites will offer internet access in the Arctic in 2026
Thanks to the Russian spacecraft Skif, people in the Arctic will have access to the internet in 2026, the TASS news agency reported on Friday.
In the statement made by the press service of the Sphere Congress, it was noted that internet access will be provided in the North Pole from 2026 with the Skif satellites belonging to the project.
According to the press service, there is almost no Internet access in the Arctic. People in the region can access the Internet using American satellite phones, but this method is slow and expensive to access the global network.
In October 2022, Russia successfully placed a Skif-D satellite into orbit using the Soyuz-2.1b launch vehicle. In the future, eight Skif satellites are planned to enter orbit to form a multi-satellite orbital constellation.
Science and Tech
Apple stopped production of the M2 processor for a while
According to new reports, Apple has stopped the production of M2 processors for a while.
Although Apple seems to be progressing well according to the numbers, it is having problems in some parts. Apple, which stopped the production of the iPhone mini series on the grounds that it did not see ‘as much demand’ as it wanted, this time prefers a similar scenario for the M2 processor.
APPLE’S SALES ARE DROPPING TOO
In the news, behind this decision of Apple lies the expectation of a decrease in Mac sales. In the news reported by SamMobile, it was also written that Apple’s decision will affect Samsung. According to reports, Apple completely stopped the production of M2 processors for MacBooks in January and February.
According to the allegations, although production started partially in March, it is produced in a much more limited way compared to the same period last year.
The source of these claims, which started in the South Korean media, is the decline in global demand for computers.
Apple, which has a significant share in computer sales, is also affected by this decline. Actually, it’s not a surprise for Apple either. There was a statement from Apple that ‘the PC market is in a difficult situation’ and that they ‘may have difficulties in the short term’.
Science and Tech
Elon Musk changed Twitter’s logo
Another crazy move came from Elon Musk, who bought Twitter.
Elon Musk replaced Twitter’s logo with Dogecoin.
Elon Musk has made a change that will be on the agenda on the social media platform Twitter. Musk replaced Twitter’s logo with Dogecoin.
After the logo started to be displayed on the Twitter homepage, there was a great increase in Dogecoin, gaining more than 30 percent in value. There was no official statement.
While there was no official statement from the company after the change, Elon Musk aroused curiosity with his tweet.
In the cartoon in the tweet, the Shiba dog gives his license to the police he was caught while driving. The blue bird photo on the driver’s license says, “That’s the old photo.”
— Elon Musk (@elonmusk) April 3, 2023